Welcome

Welcome
John William Tuohy lives in Washington DC

*** DRAMATISTS GUILD UPDATE ~ PLAYWRIGHTS WELCOME ***





We are pleased to announce that She LA Arts in Los Angeles, CA, Pasadena Playhouse in Pasadena, CA, Theater Latté Da in Minneapolis, MN, Theatre East in NYC, and Hudson Valley Shakespeare Festival in Cold Spring, NY have recently joined our Playwrights Welcome program!
 
Playwrights Welcome offers available tickets to professional playwrights on the day of a performance, free of charge. These are tickets that would otherwise go unsold. Developed for Dramatists Guild of America members, Playwrights Welcome is a national ticketing initiative created by Samuel French, along with Dramatists Play Service, Dramatic Publishing, Music Theatre International, Playscripts,  and Rodgers and Hammerstein.

More information on the Playwrights Welcome program...


*** OPPORTUNITIES FOR PLAYWRIGHTS ***

Over Our Head Players is accepting submissions for the "2020 Snowdance® 10 Minute Comedy Festival," now through November 1. "Snowdance®" entry is open to original 10 minute or shorter comedies for the stage. 
Winning entries will be performed together in one theatre presentation by the OOHP Snowdance ensemble at Sixth Street Theatre for five weeks beginning January 31, 2020. The entire Snowdance production will be presented 24 times during the run. At each performance, audience members can vote for their favorite individual comedy; the audience favorites will earn cash prizes for the playwright. 

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The Richard Rodgers Awards 2020
These awards, created and endowed by Richard Rodgers in 1978 for the development of the musical theater, subsidize full productions, studio productions, and staged readings by nonprofit theaters in New York City of works by composers and writers who are not already established in this field. The winners are selected by a jury of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

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The Jonathan Larson Grants are intended to honor and recognize emerging musical theatre artists. Composers, lyricists, and librettists who work in musical theatre are the focus of the grants. ATW is committed to serving artists who are creating new, fully producible works for the theatre, and advancing the art form. The grants do not honor a specific piece or project.


*** FOR MORE INFORMATION about these and other opportunities see the web site at https://www.nycplaywrights.org ***


*** FLY SYSTEM ***

A fly system, or theatrical rigging system, is a system of rope lines, blocks (pulleys), counterweights and related devices within a theater that enables a stage crew to fly (hoist) quickly, quietly and safely components such as curtains, lights, scenery, stage effects and, sometimes, people. 


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Throughout his lifetime, Peter Foy applied his artistic vision and mechanical ingenuity to the challenge of safely flying performers in a variety of different and often difficult circumstances. His creation of the Inter-Related Pendulum helped define Mary Martin’s barnstorming performance as Peter Pan for the 1954 Broadway musical and ushered in a new era of spectacular, highly-controlled, natural-looking free flight. 

In the years that followed, Foy introduced a series of wholly new flying systems, each created to remedy a problem or redefine a flying aesthetic. He created the Floating Pulley system in 1958 as a means of flying actors in low-height venues. His determination to preserve the magic of theatrical flight by concealing its mechanism from the audience’s view led to his introduction of the Track-On-Track system, an ingenious arrangement allowing independent control of lift and travel, in 1962.

More...

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“Shoshana Bean was starring in Wicked on Broadway and got to the big number at the end of act one, ‘Defying Gravity.’ As most people know, Elphaba rises up during the whole last section and ‘flies.’ In actuality, she’s on a cherry picker that lifts her while an enormous dress blows around her. The cast then runs onstage and points upward while she belts out the ending. Well, one night she got to the part where she rises and sings ‘It’s me-e-e-e-e‘ and… she didn’t rise. The cherry picker didn’t work, but she had to finish the song. So, she just walked off the cherry picker and kept singing the end of the song. But what about the ensemble? They’re supposed to run out and point up at her, flying above them. They decided the only way they could point up at her is if they ran out…and laid on the floor. So, the entire end of the number was Shoshana belting how she was ‘defying gravity’ while standing 5’2” off the ground and the whole ensemble singing ‘Look at her! She’s wicked!’ while laying on the floor. And that’s live theater!”

More...

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Deus ex machina is a Greek term meaning “God from the Machine.” In Greek tragedies, a God would appear and resolves the conflict in the story by introducing new information to a character. This was usually done with a crane or a trap door for entry onto the stage to make it seem like the God's appearance was supernatural.

This same idea was used throughout plays in the Late Middle Ages to create the illusion of flying. A crane would be installed into the theater behind a scenery piece, or offstage, to hide it. Then the actor would be wearing a harness that was then attached to some kind of pulley system that would run along the arm of the crane in order to adjust the height of the actor once the actor was off of the ground allowing the crane operator to raise and lower the flying actor. To compensate for the weight of the actor, at the bast of the crane around where the operator would be located would be a counter weight system which might be metal weights or sandbags. By using a crane not only can you move up and down, but you can also move from side to side as well, depending on the restrictions of the scenic pieces. It could also be possible to move upstage and downstage if the crane was on some kind of track in the floor. 

More...

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Some tips and tricks to help you "fly" your characters in Peter Pan the Musical.

If you intend to use wires and harnesses here are some of the top flying companies in the world: www.zfxflying.com  www.flybyfoy.com  www.freedom-flying.co.uk  www.getvertigo.com www.bluechilliflying.com.

Here are some more straightforward suggestions all of which have come from successful past productions – we hope they help you:

• Place the characters on stage risers, flood the stage with dry ice and create the illusion of movement with a spot-lit mirror ball leaving the music to do the rest.
• Create some life-size silhouette puppets which can be held up against a London skyline.
• Get your characters to use scooters on stage in amongst lots of dry ice / fog.
• Use UV light on a totally darkened stage – only the fluorescent costumes of Peter and the children are picked up and glow as they are carried across the stage by figures dressed in black.
• A black star cloth on an empty UV-lit stage stage can create the illusion of the characters suspended in mid-air against the night sky.
• Simply blow some fog onto the stage and use rotating gobos in moving lights to create a cloud-like sky for your characters to “fly” over.
• Employ a couple of see-saws between the nursery beds (with one end of the beam controlled by crew members from behind a black cloth). Use a spotlight to light the characters just from the knees up. Even though the characters only rise a few feet the effect on the audience can be delightfully deceptive.
• Place the characters on a black staircase in black out and spotlight them with a projector behind showing moving images of the London skyline

More...

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There's another way in which she is like Peter Pan. After spending the first half of her life as a gymnast, Ms. Rigby can truly fly with the greatest of ease. What's difficult, she says, is singing, dancing and acting while wearing the 7-pound harness that hoists her aloft.

"You're strapped into it like a corset around your waist and over your shoulders and through your legs, very tightly," she says. "I had to gain an incredible amount of endurance to pull it off."

The actual flying "is a ball," Ms. Rigby says. Designed by Foy -- a name which is to stage flight what the Wright Brothers were to airplanes -- Ms. Rigby's flying sequences receive a backstage assist from "two guys who are pulling the ropes, one who pulls me back and forth, and one who pulls me up and down."

Her most daring aerobatics come at the end of the first act. "I spin and I turn . . . I actually grab the curtain and I spin," she says. "I guess because of the gymnastics I have a pretty good awareness of how to spin, how to stop myself. There's a feeling of total abandon up there, and risk. I'm not cautious up there."

There have been a couple of mishaps, however. In Kansas City, Mo., during the sword fight with Captain Hook, "I was flying too fast and put both hands in front of me to stop myself," Ms. Rigby recalls. "My sword hit the set first and ricocheted and hit me over the eye." She finished the show with blood streaming down her face, and subsequently received 10 stitches. "I'm sure the audience thought this was the most realistic thing."

On another occasion, the wire that propels her upward got crossed with the wire of another actress. "Instead of flying out the window, she flew up in a horizontal position. She was in bed, so with covers and all she flew up in the air," Ms. Rigby says, adding that they immediately performed the scene again -- correctly the second time.

More...

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When the world’s most famous nanny comes to the Muny — complete with umbrella, spoonsful of sugar and child-rearing techniques guaranteed to baffle Dr. Spock — she will perform her most spectacular feat: She will fly.
She will fly right over the audience.

If you have seen “Mary Poppins” before — on tour at the Fox or at other indoor theaters — you know that she’s supposed to do that.
But you may have wondered how that would be possible at a theater that has no ceiling.
You know she doesn’t actually fly, right? The actress who plays Mary Poppins — that’s Jenny Powers, this time out — must be safely attached to a wiring system that creates the illusion of flight.


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Foster father arrested for raping two children in his custody




So far in the month of July, nationally, we’ve had several foster children, all under the age of 5, murdered, a few more beaten to the point they required long term medical attention, four or five sexual molestations and of course the standard six or seven kids that simply vanished within the system. Vanished. Disappeared. No one knows where they are.
And rounding out the month we have this lunatic, Michael Diaz, 33, of Chelsea, Mass., an approved foster parent. Diaz raped two foster girls in his care….six times….to go along with the 9 counts of indecent assault and battery on a child under 14. To top it off, he forced them to watch porn films.
He’s going to trial next week but since its Massachusetts, don’t expect much in the way of punishment, he’ll do two or maybe three years under protective custody. (Otherwise, the other cons will beat him to death, rape him etc.)
The two girls, aside from inevitably facing a life of poverty and failure like most kids who make it out of the system, will carry the trauma of rape around with them until they die, and like most former foster kids, they’ll die before they reach age 50.





Showdown at Gower Glutch



On the morning of February 23, 1940, at 1438 North Gower Street, called the Gower Gulch, a cowboy named Jerome “Blackjack” Ward shot and killed another cowboy named Johnny Tyke.

The shooting was over a woman.

Both of the characters made their living as extras in the cowboy's films that were churned out then by studios although the poverty row studios more or less had a lock on the genre.    
Most of the cowboy extras gathered between films at the corner of Gower Street and Sunset Boulevard, which was near enough to the studios that the cowpokes could walk to work.



Blackjack Ward had been a range rider most of his life, and, he said, had proudly served with Pancho Villa’s in the Mexican revolution of 1910. By the 1930s, the old west was completely gone, and Blackjack found his way into Hollywood. The man he killed, Johnny Tyke, another western film extra didn’t have Blackjack’s lineage. He was mostly a criminal who was wanted for a string of strong-arm hold-ups.
On the day Blackjack Ward shot and killed Johnny Tyke, a crowd of about fifty cowboy extras were milling around the outside the drugstore on the corner of Gower and Sunset. Blackjack Ward was there when Johnny Tyke showed up.
“I had known Tyke for quite a while” Blackjack said “ I fed and helped that varmint for years. A few months ago, he was in jail for drunk driving, but I didn’t go to see him and, when he got out, he kept pestering me because of it. We had arguments and he threatened me. One day he said he was going to beat me to death or else use his Bowie knife on me.
Well, we met in the drugstore where the boys hang out, and Tyke started in again. He got real abusive and called me names no man worth the powder to blow him to hell will take back where I come from in old Arizona, but I says, ‘Look here, you’re bigger than me and you probably could whip me. There ain’t no sense to this anyway, and I don’t want no trouble. I got in my car and started to drive away. Tyke jumped in front of the car and yelled, ‘No you don’t. Let’s settle this right now.’
Tyke

Well, I usually carry my old gun with me; just a sort of habit a man gets into when he spends a lot of time riding the range. When Tyke tried to get in the car, I shot at him once through the windshield and drove off.”





That wasn’t even close to what actually happened. Blackjack and Tyke had fought it out  down the street and into an alley. A witness said  “I tried to edge into where I could make them listen to reason. I heard Blackjack say, ‘You been botherin’ me for the last time.’ But Tyke was goin’ for a weapon. At least, it sure looked like it, because he passed up a lot of doors.”
Blackjack shot him and then shot again, in the head. He took off but was stopped by police a few blocks away. Seeing the cops Blackjack jumped from his car and pulled out his weapon and fanned the lawmen, frontier style.” But the gun was empty. The cops leaped on him, arrested him for murder and carried him off to jail.


At the trial that July Blackjack claimed self-defense, but no weapon was found on Tyke’s person. Another extra named Yukon Jake Jackson took the stand and pulled out a knife  saying, “This here knife was Johnny Tyke’s. I heard Blackjack testify that Tyke had said he was going to cut Ward’s heart out with his shiv. That started me to thinkin’.”
He said that just after the day of the killing, he had taken his Doberman out into the parking lot where Tyke had died. “My mutt started prowling round in some bushes. He dug up this knife. I didn’t think nothing of it at the time and stuck it in my pocket and tossed it in with my fishing tackle. I forgot all about it until I heard what Blackjack said.”
A shoemaker named Joseph Hebec, who made the steep-heel boots that the cowboy extras wore, identified the knife as the one that he had previously testified to having seen Tyke carrying shortly before he was killed. The prosecutor dismissed the case. But it was all over Blackjack, the studios didn’t want him around after that.
Two months later, in April of 1942, Blackjack was drinking in the Roundup Café with a cowboy extra named Henry Isabell. Blackjack got things started when he called Henry Isabell a stool pigeon. Isabell punched Blackjack, knocking him to the floor. Blackjack answered by drawing his pistol pulled the trigger but the gun was empty, so he pistol-whipped Isabell. The cops showed up and Blackjack was arrested for assault with a deadly weapon and served a year in the county jail.
Blackjack died in bed with his boots off,  1954, at the age of 63, three years after he was fined $50 for chasing a stall owner through a market with a meat cleaver after the man refused to loan him one dollar.


Hollywood scandals: The Wrong Door Raid



The baseball legend Joe DiMaggio never stopped loving Marilyn Monroe even after she divorced him. The problem between them was simple. DiMaggio wanted a wife who would stay, home, have babies and cook. Monroe wanted a career as a superstar. DiMaggio heard the same rumors that everyone else heard in Hollywood at that time; Monroe was having an affair with her voice couch.

Monroe and voice coach

Supposedly, during the production of the “Seven Year Itch” DiMaggio, and 5,000 others, watched the scene made on Lexington Avenue in New York of Marilyn stepping on a subway grate which made her skirt fly up. The crowd kept whistling and making various catcalls during the filming causes Monroe to shoot the scene over and over again, which drove the abnormally jealous Di Maggio over the top. Back in their hotel room a livid DiMaggio allegedly smacked Monroe. In early October, Monroe’s attorney called a press conference on the lawn of the couples rented home at 508 Palm Drive and told the world Marilyn was suing for divorce.

It had been nine days since Marilyn Monroe’s divorce from Joe DiMaggio had become final on Oct. 27, 1954. The rumors all around Hollywood was that no matter what DiMaggio told himself about Monroe leaving him for another man that she left him because he was abusive, distant and cold. 


Another factor for Monroe was that DiMaggio was a jealous man, a problem when you’re married to the sexiest woman on earth.



Divorced or not, DiMaggio was certain Monroe was seeing someone else, although it was no longer his business, so he hired the famed private eye Barney Ruditsky, to track the starlight 24-7.
Ruditsky

British born Barney Ruditsky was a long time celebrity detective of the 1920s and 1930s on the New York City police force. In about 1922, Ruditsky was made a detective and placed on the so-called gangster- squad, headed by Detective Johnny Broderick. Rudensky was fearless and tough and brave and was granted the NYPD Combat Cross, the second-highest honor for bravery in the line of duty.
Broderick

Although the gangster squad was disbanded in 1933, in 1939, Ruditsky was tangled up in a bribery scandal. A former Communist, Maurice L. Malkin, accused Ruditsky and others on the squad of corruption in testimony before the HUAC. Malkin testified that the furriers union, which was controlled by Communists, borrowed $1.75 million from racketeer Arnold Rothstein to finance a 1926 strike, and that $110,000 of that went to members of the Industrial Squad, including Ruditsky.
Ruditsky retired from the force in 1941. After the war, he moved to Los Angeles and opened his private detective firm, (The Associated Security Council) a liquor store and became co-owner of a Sunset Strip nightclub called Sherry's where, in July 1949, LA mobster and dope pushed Mickey Cohen was ambushed in a shotgun attacked. Ruditsky also worked as a technical advisor on a series of crime films for 20th Century Fox and in the mid-1940s, a television series called The Lawless Years was loosely based on his career as a police officer.
In 1948, Ruditsky had allowed the LAPAD to use his office on the Strip as their base of their wiretapping operation on the home of a Hollywood madam named Brenda Allen. (Allen’s lover and business partner was a police lieutenant) The hooker had gone public with a story about the paying off the top brass of the LAPD, so to ruin her testimony, the cops bugged her house. As a result of evidence uncovered in the wiretaps, LAPD Chief Clemence B. Horrall and several of his top lieutenants, were fired from the force. After that, the LAPD had little use for Ruditsky and claimed that his PI firm was little more than a collection agency on bad gambling debts owed to various Las Vegas casinos and more than just a few gangsters including Bugsy Siegel, who was close to Ruditsky. When Siegel was murdered in 1947, Ruditsky was at the crime scene before the local police. Ruditsky was on the scene in Hollywood when actor Robert Mitchum arrested for possession of marijuana. (Ruditsky had offered to take along his friend Shirley Temple but she declined)
The LAPD also claimed that Ruditsky was nothing more than a frontman in his part ownership of Sherry’s, which they said was a mob gathering place. Regardless, he testified before the Kefauver hearings into organized crime as an expert in the field, especially concerning Southern California and Las Vegas. It was Ruditsky’s testimony about Bugsy Siegel’s girlfriend Virginia Hill, that created the image of her being completely insane. Barney Ruditsky died in October of 1962
At about 6:30 PM on November 5, Monroe drove her enormous white Cadillac to the home her friend Sheila Stewart, who lived eight blocks away in an apartment building to 8120 Waring Ave.
Joe DiMaggio was drinking with Frank Sinatra at the newly opened Villa Capri, an Italian restaurant at 6735 Yucca in Hollywood. 

The Villa was a favorite haunt of James Dean, Marilyn Monroe and Jimmy Durante for whom the restaurant private dining room was named. 

Sinatra loved the place; it was located a short walk from the recording studios at Capitol Records and Sinatra used the place as his private party room and club so much so, that when he recorded The Isle of Capri” he slipped in a mention of the Villa Capri in the lyrics.

While the two were drinking DiMaggio got a call from the infamous private eye, Barney Ruditsky who told him that one of his men, 21-year-old Phil Irwin, had spotted Marilyn’s white Cadillac on Waring. DiMaggio knew that Shelia Stewart lived in a duplex on Waring and he suspected that Stewart had been allowing Marilyn to use the place for her clandestine meetings with Hal Schaefer, a vocal coach who worked with both Monroe and Stewart.
DiMaggio told Ruditsky to meet him on Waring, they would kick the door in and catch Monroe with Schaefer on film. Again, DiMaggio and Monroe were divorced when he decided to put this stupidity into action.

About an hour later DiMaggio and Sinatra stood on the corner of Waring and Kilkea. As to who, exactly was with them is still uncertain. Ruditsky and Irwin were definitely there, with, strangely enough, their wives. Others that may have been with them was the Villa Capri’s maître d’, Billy Karen and/or Pasquale “Patsy” D’Amore, the Villa Capri’s owner. Sinatra’s sidekicks John Seminola and Sinatra’s manager Henry Sanicola may have also been on hand.
Simply put, they kicked in the wrong door. Actually, they used an ax to break the door down. The person who lived in the apartment they smashed their way into was Miss Florence Kotz, a 39-year-old secretary, who was sound asleep. “I was terrified,” she said “The place was full of men. They were making a lot of noise and lights flashed on. I saw one of them holding something up toward me, and I thought it was a weapon.” Seeing Kotz, someone in the crowd yelled “We go the wrong place” and they all ran back to their cars. “They broke a lot of glasses in the kitchen getting out of there,” Kotz said.

Kotz

The LAPD investigated the incident as an attempted burglary simply because at the time they didn’t use the term “Home invasion.” Florence Kotz said she was unable to identify the suspects because the room was dark, except when she’d been blinded by the spotlights on the cameras. Since there were no leads the cops dropped the investigation. That was in November of 1954. In September of 1955 Confidential Magazine printed every detail of the wrong door raid.

Understandably, DiMaggio had refused to pay the Ruditsky agency its $800 fee. Sinatra eventually paid them however getting stiffed probably sparked Ruditsky into selling his version of events to Confidential magazine although some people in the know said that it was the private eye Phil Erwin who worked for Ruditsky who sold the story. Irwin ruined everyone’s tall tales about the raid by telling the truth under oath about what happened, which directly contradicted Sinatra’s sworn testimony. “Almost all of Mr. Sinatra’s statements were false,” Irwin said pointing out that the only persons who stayed in the car that night, according to Irwin, were his wife and Ruditsky’s wife.
Irwin always denied he was the snitch “There were only four people alive who knew all about the details of the raid that appeared in Confidential,” Irwin testified, according to the Los Angeles Times in February of 1957. “That was me, Ruditsky, Sinatra and DiMaggio. I didn’t tell and Sinatra and DiMaggio wouldn’t. That leaves Ruditsky.”
The public humiliation, to say nothing of the criminal aspects of the wrong door raid, dogged Sinatra and DiMaggio for months. They were butts of endlessly jokes and held up to public contempt as bullies and Confidential drained the story for everything it was worth.


A state senate committee — the Special State Senate Interim Committee on Collections Agencies, Private Investigators and Adjusters, chaired by Republican Sen. Fred Kraft of San Diego, (The Kraft Committee) held hearings in February on the same day that a Los Angeles County grand jury was convened to look into the matter as well. Adding to the issue California Attorney General Pat Brown, later, like his Jerry, would become Governor Brown opened his own investigation in 1957 and the wrong door raid was pulled into that as well. As part of the overall investigation, in March of 1957, two LAPD cops, acting on orders from LAPD Chief William Parker, got themselves into Sinatra’s Palm Springs house uninvited and served him with a subpoena that he had managed to duck for weeks. The subpoena order him to appear before the Los Angeles County grand jury investigating the Wrong Door Raid.
Sinatra testified under oath that he was part of the raid but neither he nor DiMaggio had entered Kotz’ apartment after the door had been bashed open. Ruditsky and DiMaggio of course, agreed with Sinatra’s version but refused to agree with it under oath and made sure they were unavailable for the hearing. Ruditsky claimed he was recovering from a heart attack and DiMaggio left for New York. Marilyn Monroe, on a film set in London and now married to Arthur Miller, turned down an offer to speak before the Kraft Committee.
Mrs. Virginia E. Blagsen, the landlord of the Waring Avenue complex, who lived upstairs told the grand jury she was reasonably certain she recognized Frank Sinatra during the raid and Sheila Stewart testified that she saw the men running away. “I didn’t know any of them because I was looking down on them, but I would have recognized that little pipsqueak Sinatra.”
Mrs Virginia E.Blasgen, (right)

Florence Kotz sued Joe DiMaggio, Frank Sinatra and the others for $200,000 and settled out of court for $7,500.


Do you know all 8 parts of speech in English?


Do you know all 8 parts of speech in English?
From blog.wordgenius.com

Grade school grammar lessons drill the parts of speech into students’ brains, but once you’re out of the classroom it can be hard to remember all the details. You may be a skilled public speaker, but not know the difference between a subordinating conjunction and a reflexive pronoun. Never fear — we’re going to break down the eight parts of speech and how you use them.
Noun
Nouns are one of the first parts of speech children learn to identify. They’re pretty straightforward: they name people, places and things. They’re also the workhorses of a sentence and play many roles. They can be subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement, object complement, appositive, or adjective.
Proper nouns designate a specific name or title: President Obama, Mount Everest, Buckingham Palace. Proper nouns are always capitalized.
Common nouns are regular, everyday people, places and things. When talking about things, it can also be an idea, or intangible concept. Common nouns could be mother, playground, apple and magic.
You can further identify nouns as concrete or abstract, plural or singular.
Pronoun
A pronoun is used in place of a noun, which is called its antecedent. The most commonly-used pronouns are personal pronouns: she, her, he, him, I, me, you, it, we, us, they and them.
Possessive pronouns indicate ownership: my, your, its, his, her, our, their and whose.
If you want to emphasize another noun or pronoun you would use a reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
Relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause: that, what, which, who and whom.
And demonstrative pronouns are identifying or referring to nouns: that, this, these and those. They take the place of a noun that has already been mentioned.
Verb
Quite simply, a verb expresses an action or state of being. To form a complete sentence you must have a subject and a verb. The verb must agree with its subject, so make sure both are either singular or plural. You can also conjugate a verb to form different tenses. The verb “to be” breaks down into I am, you are, he/she/it is, they are, we are, they are. If you want to express “to run,” it can be “I run,” or you can include a helping verb and say “I am running” or “I can run.”
Adjective
An adjective is what adds color and description to your sentence. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun. If you’re answering the questions of which one, what kind, or how many, that’s an adjective. The RED apple...the OLD man...the GLASS building. The short words, or articles, “a, an and the” are usually classified as adjectives.
Adverb
Adverbs are similar to adjectives, but they modify or describe verbs, adjectives or another adverb. They usually answer questions of when, where, how, why and to what degree. The boy ran QUICKLY...the teacher shouted LOUDLY...the dog SNEAKILY stole the treats. You can usually tell its an adverb if it ends in -ly.
Preposition
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a prepositional phrase that modifies another word in the sentence.
The mouse ran UNDER the bookcase. In this case, “under” is the preposition within the prepositional phrase “under the bookcase,” modifying how the mouse ran.
The most common prepositions are up, over, down, under, to and from, but that is by no means complete. The English language contains hundreds of prepositions.
Conjunction
If you remember your Schoolhouse Rock (Conjunction Junction, what’s your function?) you know that a conjunction joins words, phrases and clauses. Coordinating conjunctions link equal elements: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet. Subordinating conjunctions are for comparing things or linking unequal clauses: because, although, while, since.
Interjection
Interjections add spice and excitement to your language. They are used to express emotion and are often used with exclamation points. Oh my! Wow! Yay!



When should you use semicolons?


When should you use semicolons?
From blog.wordgenius.com


Semicolons are one of the most misunderstood and under-utilized weapons in our grammar arsenal.
Here, we’re going to do our best to simplify them. You’ll be casually (and correctly) throwing around semicolons before you know it.
An important thing to understand about the semicolon is that it’s a non-essential punctuation mark. Unlike the period and the comma, which serve crucial purposes, the semicolon is a rather luxurious option; it is used to embellish sentences and allow the writer to express themselves more meaningfully.
The secret behind the semicolon actually lies before our eyes. What does a semicolon look like? It appears to be an amalgamation of a period and a comma. This gives a giant clue on how to use it — not as a period or a comma, but as something in between.
There are three main ways a semicolon is used, as well as a couple of “dos” and “don’ts.”
Joining sentences
The first and main use of a semicolon is connecting two sentences that are part of the same thought. Crucially, in this use, the two sentences have to be just that: sentences. They must be independent clauses that are capable of standing on their own.
Example:
The blue whale is the largest animal to have ever existed. It is an aquatic mammal.
Now, let’s jazz this up with a semicolon:
The blue whale is the largest animal to have existed; it is an aquatic mammal.
As we can see, the two thoughts exist independently of each other (blue whales being big and blue whales being ocean-dwelling mammals), however, they are intrinsically linked. The semicolon brings them together quite eloquently.
This brings us to the first “don’t.” Don’t use a comma to do a semicolon’s job. When two independent clauses are joined with a comma, this is known in the grammatical world as “a comma splice,” and it is frowned upon by the grammar elite.
The second “don’t” pertains to something you might have already spotted. Notice how the capital ‘I’ from the “It is an aquatic mammal” sentence became lower case when we added the semicolon? That is because the two sentences were joined into one. Don’t use a capital letter after a semicolon. The only time to do this is when the semicolon is followed by a proper noun (a name of a person or place).
The third “don’t” is don’t use a conjunction after a semicolon. A conjunction (and, or, but, etc.) can join two sentences together.
Example:
The blue whale is the largest animal to have ever existed, and it is an aquatic mammal.
The comma and the conjunction are performing the job of the semicolon, so there is no reason to use both.
Having said this, the only “do” is somewhat related. Despite conjunctions being inappropriate, conjunctive adverbs are quite welcome. Adverbs are “how” words, elaborating on how something is done. A conjunctive adverb can add more richness to a sentence with a semicolon.
Example:
The blue whale is the largest animal to have ever existed; interestingly, it is an aquatic mammal.
Detailed lists, or lists that already include commas
Arguably simpler than the first use, but far less common, semicolons can be used in certain types of lists.
An easy example would be:
My favorite U.S. cities are New Orleans, Louisiana; Los Angeles, California; Denver, Colorado and Paris, Texas.
Here, the semicolons are doing the traditional job of commas, because the commas are already in use in the city names.
Here is a more complex example:
On my date last night we saw that new rom-com, accompanied by extra buttery popcorn, Skittles and a Slushie; after that we somehow had room for a full meal, including salmon linguine and fudge cake; to finish we stared at the moon all night, which was extra large for this time of year.
Here, commas are employed to add detail to the list items, meaning semicolons were needed to divide the list.
The wink ;)
The final, and most fun, use of a semicolon is the winky face. Grammar traditionalists would have a hard time accepting this as a genuine use. However, whether they like it or not, language rules and norms are at the mercy of common usage and habits. The modern reality is that emoticons and emojis are here to stay.