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Hans Henrik Jæger

                                                   Writer Hans Jaeger, 1889, Edvard Munch

The Kristiania Bohemians (Norwegian: Kristiania-bohemen) were a political and cultural movement in the 1880s centered in Kristiania (now Oslo). Hans Jæger was the central figure in the movement, and other prominent members included Christian Krohg, Oda Krohg, Jon Flatabø, Haakon Nyhuus, and Nils Johan Schjander. The Kristiania Bohemians were naturalist artists and belonged to the period of Naturalism, but the clear emphasis that they placed on feelings also points towards the next literary period, Neo-Romanticism. The movement consisted of about 20 men and a few women, and others loosely associated with the movement, such as Arne Garborg.

The Kristiania Bohemians are also known for their Nine Bohemian Commandments, which had its origins in an article published in Impressionisten no. 8 in February 1889 and is often attributed to Hans Jæger. However, in the biographical novel Jæger – en rekonstruksjon (Jæger: A Reconstruction), Ketil Bjørnstad writes that the journal's publisher, Johan Collett Michelsen, wrote the piece together with Oda and Christian Krohg as a parody of Jæger, whom they were having a dispute with.

Hans Henrik Jæger ( September 2 1854, Drammen, Norway –  February 8 1910, Oslo) was a Norwegian writer, philosopher and anarchist political activist who was part of the Oslo (then Kristiania)-based bohemian group known as the Kristiania Bohemians. In 1886 he was prosecuted for his book Fra Kristiania-bohêmen, then convicted and sentenced to 60 days' imprisonment and a fine of 80 kr for infringement of modesty and public morals, and for blasphemy. He also lost his position as a stenographer at the Parliament of Norway. Jæger was defended in court by barrister Ludvig Meyer.. He and other bohemians tried to live by the nine commandments he had formulated in Fra Kristiania-bohêmen.

The following year he was forced to flee Norway. He had been sentenced to 150 more days in prison after the Norwegian government learned that he had sent 300 copies of Fra Kristiania-bohêmen to Sweden under the pretense that it was a volume of Christmas stories.
He was a friend of Edvard Munch and was the subject of one of Munch's paintings, swiftly painted in the rented room of one of Munch's friends.

Hans Jæger maintained that sexuality should be unrestricted in relationships, arguing that the traditional values of marriage and social class encroached on personal freedom and fulfillment. Jæger asserted that the institution of marriage should be abolished and that there should be "full sexual freedom between the sexes in the same social class."


The Bohemian Commandments (Norwegian: Bohêmbud) or Nine Bohemian Commandments (Norwegian: Bohêmens ni bud) is a frequently cited text from the Kristiania Bohemian movement in Oslo:
1.         Thou shalt write thine own life.
2.         Thou shalt sever thy family roots.
3.         Thou canst not treat thy parents badly enough.
4.         Thou shalt never smite thy neighbor for less than five crowns.
5.         Thou shalt hate and despise all farmers, such as Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.
6.         Thou shalt never wear celluloid cuffs.
7.         Neglect not to make a scandal in the Christiania Theater.
8.         Thou shalt never repent.
9.         Thou shalt take thine own life.
The commandments come from an article published in Impressionisten no. 8 in February 1889, which is often attributed to Hans Jæger. However, in the biographical novel Jæger – en rekonstruksjon (Jæger: A Reconstruction), Ketil Bjørnstad writes that the journal's publisher, Johan Collett Michelsen, wrote the piece together with Oda and Christian Krohg as a parody of Jæger, whom they were having a dispute with.




2018 Nobel Prize in Literature Postponed Amid Sexual Abuse Scandal



STOCKHOLM — The Swedish panel that awards the Nobel Prize in Literature said on Friday that it would take the extraordinary step of not naming a laureate this year — not because of a shortage of deserving writers, but because of the infighting and public outrage that have engulfed the group over a sexual abuse scandal.
The Swedish Academy said it would postpone the 2018 award until next year, when it will name two winners, making this the first year since World War II that the panel has decided not to bestow one of the world’s most revered cultural honors. The academy is involved only in the literature award, so other Nobel Prizes are not affected.
Though the prizes should be awarded annually, they can be postponed or skipped “when a situation in a prize-awarding institution arises that is so serious that a prize decision will not be perceived as credible,” Carl-Henrik Heldin, chairman of the Nobel Foundation, which governs all of the prizes, said in a statement posted online Friday morning. “The crisis in the Swedish Academy has adversely affected the Nobel Prize. Their decision underscores the seriousness of the situation and will help safeguard the long-term reputation of the Nobel Prize.”
Peter Englund, a member of the academy, wrote in an email: “I think this was a wise decision, considering both the inner turmoil of the Academy and the subsequent bloodletting of people and competence, and the general standing of the prize. Who would really care to accept this award under the current circumstances?”
The announcement that there will be no 2018 prize is the latest in a series of blows to the academy that, occurring in the glare of the #MeToo movement, have drawn worldwide attention.
In November, a Swedish newspaper reported that 18 women said they had been sexually assaulted or harassed by Jean-Claude Arnault, who is closely tied to the Swedish Academy and is accused of using his stature in the arts world to try to coerce women into sex. Other allegations against him emerged later, including a report that Mr. Arnault had groped Sweden’s crown princess, Victoria.
Through his lawyer, he has denied all of the allegations.
Mr. Arnault, a photographer, is married to a member of the academy, Katarina Frostenson; is a close friend to other members; and is co-owner, with Ms. Frostenson, of Forum, a cultural center in Stockholm that received funding from the academy. Some events were said to have occurred at academy-owned properties in Stockholm and Paris, and at least one woman’s complaints to the academy about Mr. Arnault more than 20 years ago were rebuffed.
The crisis escalated when the academy dismissed another member, Sara Danius, as its permanent secretary, the group’s chief official — the first woman to hold that post — though she remained part of the panel. She had severed the group’s ties with Mr. Arnault and Forum, and commissioned an investigation of the academy from a law firm.
Her demotion prompted mass protests by critics who said that a woman had suffered for the misdeeds of a man, and that Ms. Danius had been punished for trying to introduce openness and accountability to a group that preferred to close ranks.
In practical terms, the academy was prepared to stick to its usual schedule, winnowing potential laureates to a shortlist by summer and anointing a prize winner in October, its acting permanent secretary, Anders Olsson, told Swedish Radio on Friday. “But confidence in the academy from the world around us has sunk drastically in the past half year,” he said, “and that is the decisive reason that we are postponing the prize.”
The decision not to award the literature prize this year “is a sensational piece of news, but it was the only possible decision,” Bjorn Wiman, culture editor of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, told Swedish Radio. “It wasn’t possible under these conditions to appoint a winner. It would have been an insult to anyone who received it.”
Some of the academy’s 18 members resigned over Ms. Frostenson’s continued membership, and several more quit over the treatment of Ms. Danius. That left the group with 10 active members — too few, under its rules, to elect new members.
But academy appointments are for life, and until this week, the organization’s rules did not provide for resignations; it viewed those who quit as members who had become inactive, but could not be replaced.
On Wednesday, King Carl XVI Gustaf, the academy’s patron, who said he had followed the matter “with great concern,” announced that he had changed the academy’s rules to allow members to leave, and to allow the panel to replace any member who had been inactive for two years. It was a rare intervention by the monarch, whose role is mostly ceremonial.
Mr. Olsson said: “We are bringing in legal expertise and we are going to get better at what we do. We must vote in new members, and fast.” He promised increased transparency, and “more and better dialogue” with the royal court and the Nobel Foundation.
After meeting on Thursday, members of the academy had voiced optimism that the prize could be awarded in October, as usual.
“I see it as self-evident that we are still capable of awarding the prize,” Kristina Lugn, a panel member, told Dagens Nyheter. “We have a short nomination list with five candidates left. If we can’t do this then I think everyone should resign.”
Such comments raise the possibility that the Nobel Foundation might have pressured the Swedish Academy to change its position.
“The Nobel Foundation presumes that the Swedish Academy will now put all its efforts into the task of restoring its credibility as a prize-awarding institution,” Mr. Heldin, the foundation chairman said, “and that the academy will report the concrete actions that are undertaken.”

Christina Anderson reported from Stockholm, and Richard Pérez-Peña from London.


The Murder of Giovanni Zarcone

At first, local police had no motive for the gruesome crime and several dozen policemen and two dozen deputized citizens and the entire 8th Company, Coast Artillery Corps, were ordered to take part in the search by Governor Weeks, scoured the area from clues.
(In 1910, some children fished three shotguns out of Neversink Pond in New Fairfield. One of the guns belonged to Giovanni Zarcone)
All the police were able to find out from his close-lipped family was that Zarcone had been to Danbury hospital to visit his niece who was a patient there and that before moving to Danbury he had lived in New York City.
But slowly a clearer picture of Zarcone started to emerge. It was learned that in 1903, Zarcone was arrested in connection with the infamous “Barrell murder” of 1904. Although the January 1904 case is the known, there had actually been a series of barrel murders as early as 1895.
Wooden barrels were commonplace at the time and victim, almost always Italian immigrants, murdered and stuffed inside the barrel and left on a street corner. Barrel murders were a favorite ploy of the Sicilian Provenzano crime family in New Orleans and the Morello crime family in New York City.
It turned out that before he fled to Danbury, the seemingly hapless Giovanni Zarcone had not only been an active member of the notorious Morello mob, who preyed on the local Italian community, the gang used his butcher shop as a gathering place but that he had also been involved with the barrel murder. The Morello’s actually had several hang out spots aside from Zarcone’s Stanton Street butcher shop. They were fond of a café at 226 Elizabeth Street and a saloon at 8 Prince Street. But by that point, the gang, which usually numbered at least 30 strong, had been cut to about half that number due to federal arrests on counterfeiting charges.
On Tuesday, April 14, 1903, a patrolman walking his beat found a body stuffed in a barrel in front of   743 East 11th Street at Avenue D. The victim’s throat had been slashed so severely that it barely held on to the victim's head. In all, he was stabbed eighteen times and the victim had been alive for each blow until one fatal slash cut his jugular vein. In his pocket was a piece of paper, upon which was written ‘Come at Once!’ in Italian. The man in the barrel was probably an Italian immigrant from Sicily named Benedetto Madonia, father of five, a stone mason by trade from 47 Trenton Avenue, Buffalo. He was also a Black Hander, exactly why he was murdered was never made clear.
Secret Service agents contacted the New York City police and told them that they had been tracking the Morello gang for over a year in connection with counterfeiting and that their agents had seen the victim with members of the gang in Giovanni Zarcone’s
butcher’s shop in Stanton Street on the evening of Monday 13th. The next day police rounded up eight members of the Morello gang, each of them armed to the teeth. Arrested were Giuseppe Morello, Tommaso Petto, Joseph Fanaro, Antonio ‘Messina’ Genova, Lorenzo LoBido, Vito LoBido, Dominico Pecoraro, Pietro Inzerillo and Giovanni Zarcone. Several members of the gang escaped including Vito Laduca and Vito Cascioferro.
Acting on another tip, police decided that the place where the murder was committed happened inside a pastry shop on 226 Elizabeth Street — Dolceria Pasticceria, run by Pietro Inzerillo. At the shop the cops found an identical barrel to the one used in the murder, even bearing the same inscriptions. (On the base of the barrel, which had been used to ship sugar, was stenciled ‘W.T’, and on the side ‘G 228’.) The barrel was eventually traced to Wallace & Thompson bakery, where their record books showed an entry of a sugar order, by Pietro Inzerillo, in February.
By Thursday, April 16th, most of the existing Morello gang had been arrested in connection with the murder, including the gangs most feared killed, Ignazio Lupo, AKA Lupo the Wolf. Almost immediately, underworld partners of the Morello’s held forced collections across New York’s Italian communities to help pay the gang’s defense and bail costs. This time, many of the immigrants armed themselves and fought back against the extortionists. One man named Giovanni Bancale had five Italians arrested on charges of trying to extort money from him to “defray the expenses of the prisoners in the Barrel Murder case”, that evening he received so many death threats that the following day he applied for a pistol permit. At the same time, the Coroner was having difficulties finding a jury for the inquest. People didn’t want to get involved.
Police assumed that not only was the murder plotted inside Giovanni Zarcone’s
 Manhattan butcher shop but that they used Zarcone's wagon was used to haul the barrel containing the remains of Benedetto Madonia.  Zarcone was arrested and released on $5,000 bail. Zarcone's helper, Vito La Duca, alleged to have driven the wagon, also was arrested.
Zarcone was released from custody after the State failed to make out a case against him, although the police claimed to have established that it was his wagon that was used to haul Benedetto’s body to the place where it was found.
In the end, the case fell apart because the district attorney’s office didn’t think there was enough evidence or willing witnesses to win a conviction. Zarcone disappeared for several years. Then, in 1906, his son Pietro made the papers in September when he was arrested for a Connecticut "blue law" violation. Pietro shot at a snake one Sunday on his father's farm outside Danbury and was promptly arrested because state law prohibited even the carrying of a firearm on Sunday. The young man was fined $10 plus court costs.  (Peter Zarcone was a young man with gun issues. A few months after his father was killed, he accidentally shot himself through the hand with a pistol he found in his father’s  effects.)
The story was unusual and made national and then international news. The Morello’s read about and sent seven killers to Danbury. He knew too much about the barrel murder and he had to go.
That was one explanation.
A more logical explanation was that they killed Zarcone because he had gone into business for himself, printing and distributing counterfeit money, especially in the Bridgeport area. 
A few months before he was killed Giovanni Zarcone's uncle, Pietro Zarcone of 230 Fourth Street in Brooklyn, who was also a butcher, murdered a man on a Brooklyn Street. On April 15, 1909, Andrea Gambino, said Zarcone, tried to rob him of $50 at gunpoint on a Brooklyn Street.  Gambino allegedly told the barber, “Pay or die”.  According to reports, in 1904, Gambino had murdered a man named Nicola Savano with a shot null during a scuffle in front of Gambino’s barbershop on Hamilton Avenue.
According to a policeman who witnessed the murder, Savano was strolling by Gambino’s store when Gambino, who was on the sidewalk, rushed into his shop, grabbed a shotgun and unloaded it at close range into Savano’s head. Gambino was reloading the weapon when the officer wrestled it from him. Police learned that several months Savano and another man attacked Gambino in his shop severely cutting him with switchblades.  Based on the events, it seems that Gambino, whom the newspapers described as a Black Hand extortionist may actually have been an extortion victim. 
In the 1909 event, Peter Zarcone claimed that Gambino demanded $50 from him at l point and Zarcone refused and then drew his own revolver and a running gun battle, witnessed by at least one thousand onlookers, began.  Several armed friends of Zarcone joined the struggle. Shooting their way down four city blocks, the gunmen both fired and reloaded twice until a single bullet felled Gambino (Other reports say he was hit with several shots) at his front door strep on Fifth Avenue. As Gambino’s wife and small child watched, Zarcone and his friends caught up with him and beat him with their pistols.
A policeman, Thomas Kerrigan, arrested Zarcone, allowing his friends to escape into the confusion. The crowd, by then estimated to be 4,000 strong and incensed at the murder tried to grab Zarcone from the cop who was forced to hold them off at gunpoint until help arrived.
 In short order, other Morello gang members who may have had inside information on the gang’s murders ended up dead.  Luciana Perino, AKA "Petto the Ox," who was shot dead in Pittston Pennsylvania. Vito LaDuca was murdered later in Sicily, and Messina Geneva was killed near Dayton, Ohio.  Joey Fanaro was walking home early one morning in New York City, November 1913, when he was shot by four men. Although all of those killed played at least some part in the barrel murder, undoubtedly some of their deaths were related to some other aspect of the criminal life.  According to Secret Service informants, the one killing definitely linked to the legacy of the Barrel Murder was the 1912 shooting of Colagero Morello, Giuseppe Morello’s only son.
As for Morello, he was convicted of counterfeiting in 1909 and got 20 years in prison—then was killed in a mafia crime war in 1930. The Morello gang eventually evolved into the Genovese Crime Family.